Simone Leigh

American, born 1967

Sentinel IV

Bronze 128 × 25 × 15 inches
Purchase, Landmarks, The University of Texas at Austin, 2020
Location: Anna Hiss Gymnasium Courtyard GPS: 30.28855, -97.73785

Activity Guides

A graphic of Simone Leigh's "Sentinel IV"
Simone Leigh
American, born 1967
Sentinel IV


Subject: Found objects and scale

Activity: Sculpting and re-imagining everyday objects in a new scale

Materials: Clay or similar material (model magic airdry clay, etc)

Vocabulary: Ceremonial, sentinel, scale, Zulu

A graphic of Simone Leigh's "Sentinel IV"
Simone Leigh
American, born 1967
Sentinel IV


Subject: Proportions of objects

Activity: Abstracted still life

Materials: Object of choice, three pieces of 8.5 x 11 paper, pencil, acrylic paint (or other coloring materials of your choice)

Vocabulary: Ceremonial, commemorative, proportions, ritual, replica, sentinel, tryptic

A graphic of Simone Leigh's "Sentinel IV"
Simone Leigh
American, born 1967
Sentinel IV


Subject: Anthropomorphic sculpture

Activity: Creating sculptures that reimagine everyday objects as anthropomorphic

Materials: Clay or similar material (model magic airdry clay, etc), pencil

Vocabulary: Ceremonial, commemorative, ritual, sentinel, replica, anthropomorphism

More Information

Essay by Stephanie Sparling Williams

Sentinel IV, 2020

Monumental in scale, Simone Leigh’s Sentinel IV is silent, still, rooted. At ten-and-a-half feet tall, this slender guardian with its elongated proportions and faceless bowl crown exudes a mystical presence. Bronze becomes sentient in Leigh’s hands—the smooth, black, semi-reflective surface glistens radiantly where it stands in the Anna Hiss Gymnasium courtyard. Despite its featureless façade, Sentinel IV seems to capture and hold vision itself in its deep hollow. The anthropomorphic figure at once holds space and holds court, to use two vernacular concepts in tension—to make space/to take up space.

Over the past decade, Simone Leigh has used sculpture, video, installation, social practice, and performance as critical means through which to pursue and amplify representations of Black feminine forms and to celebrate and serve her primary audience—those who identify as Black women. Drawing upon the quotidian visual traditions across the African continent, American south, and Caribbean, Leigh’s sculptural work in particular engages with diverse Black cultural histories and complex experiences across the diaspora.

Leigh began her artistic career when she took a ceramics class on a whim while studying philosophy in college. She soon discovered a knack for clay and developed proficiency in pottery techniques despite never attending art school. Leigh’s early interest in issues of race and beauty inspired exquisite sculptures of Black women, artworks that saw her now renowned creolization of form perfected.

 Over the course of her career, explorations of architecture, history, and Black female figures have catalyzed some of her most profound work, including Loophole of Retreat (2019) at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, and Brick House (2019), commissioned for the High Line Plinth in New York City. Each piece is meticulously researched—the conceptual heft of the artist’s work only outdone by the forms themselves, which range according to her many rich influences. Scholar and cultural theorist Christina Sharpe, poet Dionne Brand, abolitionist Harriet Jacobs, feminist conceptual artist Lorraine O’Grady, sculptor Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, and African American studies scholar Saidiya Hartman, are but a few of the sculptor’s intellectual and creative interlocutors. Leigh has also drawn inspiration from sources as wide-ranging as colonial anthropology, fundamentalist Christianity, and 1970s Afrocentrism.

Given her emergence in the wake of postminimalist sculpture and postmodern artistic sensibilities more broadly, the cultural legacy to which Leigh’s work belongs is part of “a respected lineage of artists who are oriented towards feminist and civil rights activist discourses, such as Faith Ringgold, Barbara-Chase-Riboud, Noah Purifoy, and Miriam Schapiro,” as noted by curator Jamillah James. She argues that, “by centering black women as subjects and audience, Leigh forges her own sense of time that is constantly navigating various histories, while contending with the present and with possible futures.”

Today, Leigh is celebrated for her deep formal investigations into familiar objects, which she reworks in order to destabilize their original signs and connotations. Whether breast fetishes, enlarged cowry shells, or glazed stoneware inspired by antebellum South Carolinian face vessels, these objects represent Leigh’s sustained meditations on Black women and their bodies as a kind of material culture—to use the artist’s words—and as containers for history, trauma, and knowledge. In some of her best-known works, which include the ceramic busts in her ongoing Anatomy of Architecture series (2016), Leigh depicts Black women with exceptionally intricate bodices, ornate floral diadems, and smooth flat surfaces in place of their eyes.

Departing from classical portrait busts, Leigh’s pieces take their inspiration from figurative sculpture across the African diaspora and represent no single individual, but rather exude Black female subjectivity broadly. They are sculpted using dark, richly hued, and textured surfaces, a stark contrast to the historical use of smooth white marble. Artist Lorraine O’Grady describes her first encounter with Leigh’s “women without eyes, these blind women,” as frightening. Upon further reflection, however, the conceptual artist notes the radical and self-preservationist impulse that can be read in Leigh’s formal approach to her sculpture’s eyes, recognizing the lack of eyes—this blinding—as an opportunity to look inside and to see oneself more clearly.

Leigh describes her own approach to Black women as cultural objects through the language of auto-ethnography, the study of communities to which the scholar or artist belongs. The native anthropologist uses their own orientation and access to observe and amplify perspectives typically marginalized. Indeed, one can observe how the artist’s practice is deeply informed by research and participant observation, the work itself produced out of self-reflexive modes of engagement in projects such as The Free People’s Medical Clinic (2014), The Waiting Room (2016), and Loophole of Retreat (2019). Furthermore, this process is both auto-ethnographic in its orientation to the various archives and communities Leigh traverses, as well as phenomenological in its fabrication, as sculpture is necessarily a medium one negotiates in relationship to their own body, both as maker and spectator.

In her more recent work, Leigh explores the Black female form through its material and cultural associations with notions of labor, specifically objects that amalgamate the body with tools for everyday use. Bringing together the Black female body and material culture, the artist focuses on vernacular objects found across the African diaspora that she understands as readymades. In this way, Leigh revisits the modernist cannon as a way to assert a Black female presence; however, significantly, the artist remains untethered by modernist definitions and rules. In Leigh’s practice, these bodies and their existence are strategically disentangled from notions of European whiteness, an impulse emanating from a lineage of artists working during the civil rights, black power, and feminist movements of the 1960s and 1970s.

The figure of Sentinel IV is one such cultural readymade, and is likely familiar to those who have traveled to South Africa in the last several decades. Used as a ceremonial spoon in its original context, this nineteenth- and early twentieth-century object became popular among tourists drawn to its stunning artistry and portability. In fact, the New York Times and other travel columns catering to international travelers often feature spoons like the ones that inspired Sentinel IV in their destination articles and souvenir guides.

Meant to represent feminine beauty and sensuality, the carved form originated in its use as ceremonial cutlery often accompanying other Zulu wedding rituals. The wooden object, notably anthropomorphized in female form, is the traditional instrument of familial integration, signifying the bride’s entry into her husband’s family and home. It is customary for the spoon to be kept in a woven satchel especially designed and beaded to hold such objects; however, those found in regional tourist shops are often displayed upright, supported by tiny stands. The souvenirs range in size from a few inches to several feet, with designs varying from wide brimmed bowls and thick, beaded stem handles, to delicate, sinuous, and anthropomorphic stems with circular pitted bowls.

The artist’s interest in the history of the African diaspora stems from her fascination with these vernacular objects, and the spoon is one such iconic object in West and South African culture. In many of the earliest ritual spoons, such as ones exhibited at the Louvre Museum in Paris and at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History in Washington, DC, the carved wooden figure is rendered in exquisite detail, complete with intricately defined anatomical parts. Each figure’s cone-shaped breasts, which typically point in opposite directions, also call to mind other objects across continental Africa that celebrate feminine sensuality and fertility.

Indeed, Leigh is not the first artist inspired by African ceremonial spoons. In fact, the Swiss sculptor Alberto Giacometti sculpted his own bronze iteration titled Spoon Woman (1926–27) after ceremonial spoons carved by the Dan people of West Africa. However, the title of Leigh’s sculpture is not entirely didactic. Leigh admits that in actuality all of her works might be called “sentinels”—her use of sentinel acknowledging the persistent labor performed by the Black female form, even when elevated and presented in fine art contexts. With this powerful charge, Leigh names Sentinel IV for its position across expansive historical and cultural milieus, an especially fitting attribution in its current university context.

The artist’s appropriation of the spoon in Sentinel IV subverts its cultural manifestation as an object requiring activation through ceremonial use to receive its power, or commercial exchange to receive its value. Said another way, the Black female form in Leigh’s sculptural practice is transformed into an aesthetic object to be looked at and admired, rather than touched and used, despite its legacy use and its proliferation as a monetized and exported trinket. Leigh simultaneously liberates the Black female form in this instance from a cycle as a ritual implement, and propels this same form into the commercial context of the fine art world. How will this form be read and understood today in its new hypervisible context?

On a campus, in a city, whose own history continues to be shaped by exclusion, violence, and segregation, Leigh’s sentinel stakes radical claim to existence in a moment when Black existence, in particular, is persistently under threat. Sentinel IV holds space and holds court—an apt landmark poised to see, hear, and represent—to project Black presence into the future of The University of Texas at Austin and beyond, while bearing witness to this indelible present.  


With thanks to Relyn Myrthil for her research assistance.

Stephanie Sparling Williams

Bibliographic Highlights

Simone Leigh bibliography

Li, Dixon. “Of Monuments and Black WOMEN'S Monumental LABORS—MONUMENT LAB[k1] ,”

Hartman, Saidiya. The Anarchy of Colored Girls Assembled in a Riotous Manner, edited by Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2019.

Parker, Rianna Jade. “'What We Carry in the Flesh': The Majestic Bodies of Simone Leigh.” Frieze. June 4, 2019.

Molesworth, Helen. “Art is Medicine: Helen Molesworth on the Work of Simone Leigh.” Artforum International, March 1, 2018.

Nelson, Charmine. The Color of Stone: Sculpting the Black Female Subject in Nineteenth-century America. University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

Jackson, Zakiyyah Iman. “Suspended Munition: Mereology, Morphology, and the Mammary Biopolitics of Transmission in Simone Leigh’s Trophallaxis.” efflux 105 (December 2019).

Osmundson, Joe. “How Many Black Histories We Still Don’t Know: An Interview With Simone Leigh.” The Feminist Wire, October 3, 2014.

Project History

Landmarks acquired Sentinel IV by Simone Leigh to grace the courtyard of the Anna Hiss Gymnasium and offer opportunities for reflection and engagement. The sculpture honors Black femininity while also investigating historical and intersecting ideas of race, beauty, and the association of Black women’s bodies with work.  

Funding for Sentinel IV was provided by the capital improvement project for the Anna Hiss Gymnasium. Landmarks gives special thanks to the following: 


Darrell Bazzell and Financial and Administrative Services 
Andrée Bober and Landmarks 
Michael Carmagnola and Project Management and Construction Services  
Campus Master Planning Committee 
David Darling and the Office of Campus Planning and Facilities Management 
Jay Hartzell and the Office of the President 
Landmarks Advisory Committee 
Ramón Rivera-Servera and the College of Fine Arts 
Larry Singell and the Office of the Executive Vice President and Provost 

Project Team 

Asakura Robinson, landscape architecture  
Andrée Bober, curator and director, Landmarks 
Nisa Barger, project manager, Landmarks 
Robert Hengst, Project Management and Construction Services  
Ross Johnson, Office of the Executive Vice President and Provost 
Simone Leigh, artist 
Lord Aeck Sargent, architecture  
Patrick Sheehy Fine Art Services, art installation 
SpawGlass, construction 

Special Thanks 

Rebecca Adib, Simone Leigh Studio 
Megan Ardery, Resnicow + Associates 
Paul Bardagjy, photography  
Eboné Bishop, Evolv Culture 
Christina Cary, Hauser & Wirth 
Douglas Dempster, former dean, College of Fine Arts 
Claire Eddleman-Heath, Asakura Robinson  
André Fuqua, development, Landmarks 
Christine Gwillim, education, Landmarks 
Bill Haddad, technology 
Andrea Keane, event planner, Landmarks 
Mary Margaret Kennedy, operations, Landmarks  
John Kisner, Lord Aeck Sargent 
Logan Larsen, communications, Landmarks  
Margaret-Anne Logan, Resnicow + Associates  
Marla Martinez, Financial and Administrative Services  
Maurie McInnis, former Executive Vice President and Provost 
Alexandra Mendez, intern, Landmarks 
Christina Murrey, photography 
Relyn Myrthil, research assistant  
Sophie Treharne Nurse, Hauser & Wirth 
David Resnicow, Resnicow + Associates 
Margaret Robinson, Asakura Robinson  
Linda Shaunessy, Business Contracts 
Cherise Smith, African and African Diaspora Studies 
John Starr, Lord Aeck Sargent  
Kathleen Brady Stimpert, deputy director, Landmarks 
Stephanie Taparauskas, development, Landmarks 
Vault Fine Art Services 
Stephanie Sparling Williams, curatorial contributor  
Christine Wong, College of Fine Arts 
Reagan Woodlock, design, Landmarks 
Ali Wysopal, collections, Landmarks 
John Yancey, Fine Arts Diversity Council